Who are the political typology groups? Generally critical of government, especially social safety net programs, but also critical of big business and immigrants. Most are very socially conservative.
However, research following the Cypriot referendum ofidentified four distinct voting behaviors depending on the election type. Citizens use different decision criteria if they are called to exercise their right to vote in presidentiallegislativelocal elections or in a referendum.
Local and regional elections differ, as people tend to elect those who seem more capable to contribute to their area.
A referendum follows another logic as people are specifically asked to vote for or against a clearly defined policy. Regardless of the political preference, this is an interesting differentiation that can be attributed to affective influence. Affect here refers to the experience of emotion or feeling, which is often described in contrast to cognition.
This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decision-making. In exploring the benefits of affect on voting, researchers have argued that affective states such as anxiety and enthusiasm encourage the evaluation of new political information and thus benefit political behavior by leading to more considered choices.
For example, evidence has shown that a variety of events that are irrelevant to the evaluation of candidates but can stir emotions, such as the outcome of football matches  and weather,  can significantly affect voting decisions.
Several variables have been proposed that may moderate the relationship between emotion and voting. Researchers have shown that one such variable may be political sophistication, with higher sophistication voters more likely to experience emotions in response to political stimuli and thus more prone to emotional biases in voting choice.
Surprise — Recent research suggests that the emotion of surprise may magnify the effect of emotions on voting. In assessing the effect of home-team sports victories on voting, Healy et al. An experiment on students at the University of Massachusetts Amherst showed that people who had been primed with an anger condition relied less upon issue-concordance when choosing between candidates than those who had been primed with fear.
Voters who report anxiety regarding an election are more likely to vote for candidates whose policies they prefer, and party members who report feeling anxious regarding a candidate are twice as likely to defect and vote for the opposition candidate. The size of the effect of expressions of pride on voting for McCain was roughly one third of the size of the effect of party identification, typically the strongest predictor.
The sociological factors that affect voting include social class, income, occupation, education, religion, ethnic background, primary groups, geography, sex, and age. Relatively little is known about the differences in voting behavior between immigrants and native-born Americans, primarily due to a lack of good quality data on the national level. Using new data from the Voting and Registration Supplement to the November Current Population Survey (CPS), we first estimate logistic regressions to examine . ECONOMIC VOTING AND ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR: HOW DO INDIVIDUAL, LOCAL, AND NATIONAL Australian elections between and , I explore the impact that individual, local, and national factors have on voters’ decisions. In these 10 elections, the poor, foreign-born, younger voters, voters born since ECONOMIC VOTING AND ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.
A recent study on voters in Israel found that voters' cortisol levels, the so-called "stress hormone," were significantly higher immediately before entering a polling place than personal baseline levels measured on a similar, non-election day.
Enthusiasm tends to reinforce preferences, whereas fear and anxiety tends to interrupt behavioral patterns and leads individuals to look for new sources of information. After gauging participants' interest in politics, the survey asked the participants to list either i two positive characteristics of the Prime Minister, ii five positive characteristics of the Prime Minister, iii two negative characteristics of the Prime Minister, or iv five negative characteristics of the Prime Minister.
Participants were then asked to rate their attitude toward Blair on a scale from 1 to 7 where higher values reflected higher favorability.
The ones asked to list five positive characteristics were primed negatively towards the politicians because it was too hard to name five good traits.
On the contrary, following the same logic, those who were to list five negative, came to like the politician better than before. This conclusion was reflected in the final survey stage when participants evaluated their attitude toward the Prime Minister. Enlisted personnel political behavior has only been studied more recently, notably by Dempsey,  and Inbody.
They more nearly represent the general population. In general, the usual demographic predictors of voting and other political behavior apply to military personnel. Loss aversion[ edit ] The loss aversion theory  by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman is often associated with voting behavior as people are more likely to use their vote to avoid the effect of an unfavorable policy rather than supporting a favorable policy.
From a psychological perspective, value references are crucial to determine individual preferences.The politics of American generations: How age affects attitudes and voting behavior By Drew DeSilver The notion that age and political ideology are related goes back at least to French monarchist statesman François Guizot, who originated the oft-mangled quotation, “Not to be a republican at 20 is proof of want of heart; to be one at 30 is.
The sociological factors that affect voting include social class, income, occupation, education, religion, ethnic background, primary groups, geography, sex, and age. To interpret voting behavior both political science and psychology expertise were necessary and therefore the To make inferences and predictions about behavior concerning a voting decision, certain factors such as gender, race, culture or religion must be considered.
Citizens use different decision criteria if they are called to. The various attitudes and orientations that influence voting behavior in presidential elections are interrelated. Understanding the interrelationships among these factors is important for a full understanding of voting behavior.
I believe in the principles of a Republic, which are that the citizens elect an able and wise leader, and then leave it up to him or her to decide on how to govern, since the average citizen can never know all the factors that go into the decisions of lawmakers.
To assess accurately whether naturalized citizens are more likely to report that they register and vote than native-born citizens, whether region of origin makes a difference, and whether duration in the U.S.
makes a difference in registration and voting among naturalized citizens, it is vital to control for other factors related to.