Stealing morality and modern moral philosophy

Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters of the Groundwork. The point of this first project is to come up with a precise statement of the principle or principles on which all of our ordinary moral judgments are based. The judgments in question are supposed to be those that any normal, sane, adult human being would accept on due rational reflection.

Stealing morality and modern moral philosophy

Moral development involves the formation of a system of values on which to base decisions concerning "right" and "wrong, " or "good" and "bad.

Stealing morality and modern moral philosophy

Although morality has been a topic of discussion since the beginning of human civilization, the scientific study of moral development did not begin in earnest until the late s. Lawrence Kohlbergan American psychologist building upon Jean Piaget's work in cognitive reasoning, posited six stages of moral development in his doctoral thesis.

Since that time, morality and moral development have become acceptable subjects of scientific research.

Prior to Kohlberg's work, the prevailing positivist view claimed that science should be" value-free"—that morality had no place in scientific studies. By choosing to study moral development scientifically, Kohlberg broke through the positivist boundary and established morality as a legitimate subject of scientific research.

There are several approaches to the study of moral development, which are categorized in a variety of ways. Briefly, the social learning theory approach claims that humans develop morality by learning the rules of acceptable behavior from their external environment an essentially behaviorist approach.

Psychoanalytic theory proposes instead that morality develops through humans' conflict between their instinctual drives and the demands of society.

Cognitive development theories view morality as an outgrowth of cognitionor reasoning, whereas personality theories are holistic in their approach, taking into account all the factors that contribute to human development. The differences between these approaches rest on two questions: In other words, how moral are infants at birth?

And how is "moral maturity" defined? What is the ideal morality to which we aspire? The contrasting philosophies at the heart of the answers to these questions determine the essential perspective of each moral development theory. Those who believe infants are born with no moral sense tend towards social learning or behaviorist theories as all morality must therefore be learned from the external environment.

Others who believe humans are innately aggressive and completely self-oriented are more likely to accept psychoanalytic theories where morality is the learned management of socially destructive internal drives. Those who believe it is our reasoning abilities that separate us from the rest of creation will find cognitive development theories the most attractive, while those who view humans as holistic beings who are born with a full range of potentialities will most likely be drawn to personality theories.

What constitutes "mature morality" is a subject of great controversy. Each society develops its own set of norms and standards for acceptable behavior, leading many to say that morality is entirely culturally conditioned.

Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century

Does this mean there are no universal truths, no cross-cultural standards for human behavior? The debate over this question fuels the critiques of many moral development theories. Kohlberg's six stages of moral development, for example, have been criticized for elevating Western, urban, intellectual upper class understandings of morality, while discrediting rural, tribal, working class, or Eastern moral understandings.

See Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning. Feminists have pointed out potential sexist elements in moral development theories devised by male researchers using male subjects only such as Kohlberg's early work.

Section Two

Because women's experience in the world is different from men's in every cultureit would stand to reason that women's moral development might differ from men's, perhaps in significant ways.

Definitions of what is or is not moral are currently in a state of upheaval within individual societies as well as, at least, in the Western world. Controversies rage over the morality of warfare especially nuclearecological conservation, genetic research and manipulation, alternative fertility and childbearing methods, abortionsexualitypornographydrug use, euthanasia, racismsexism, and human rights issues, among others.

Determining the limits of moral behavior becomes increasingly difficult as human capabilities, choices, and responsibilities proliferate with advances in technology and scientific knowledge. For example, prenatal testing techniques that determine birth defects in utero force parents to make new moral choices about whether to birth a child.

Other examples of recently created moral questions abound in modern-day society.

Lectures on the History of Philosophy. by G W F Hegel, , trans. E S Haldane, Inaugural Address Prefatory Note Introduction A. Notion of the History of Philosophy. 1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures. Kant pursues . A page in the Encyclopedia of Marxism. Mode of Life The material and cultural environment where humans satisfy their needs for living (whether for health, food, housing or needs such as education, science, nurturing, etc.).

Therefore, the study of moral development is lively today. The rise in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, gang violence, teen parenthood, and suicide in recent years in Western society has also caused a rise in concern over morality and moral development. Parents and teachers want to know how to raise moral children, and they turn to moral development theorists to find the answers.Christianity has had a seriously negative effect on societal morality, and the Bible's teachings range from dubious and confusing, to downright immoral.

Ethics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Since the 's Western society, hitherto Christian in foundation, has come under the influence of a school of moral theology known as Consequentialism.

A page in the Encyclopedia of Marxism. Mode of Life The material and cultural environment where humans satisfy their needs for living (whether for health, food, housing or needs such as education, science, nurturing, etc.).

"Let us nominate this the most important theoretical work on ethical or moral theory since John Rawls's Theory of you have philosophical inclinations and want a good workout, this conscientious scrutiny of moral .

Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.

A page in the Encyclopedia of Marxism. Mode of Life The material and cultural environment where humans satisfy their needs for living (whether for health, food, housing or needs such as education, science, nurturing, etc.).

Ethics - The history of Western ethics |