Edit Illustrative case studies describe a domain; they use one or two instances to analyze a situation. This helps interpret other data, especially when researchers have reason to believe that readers know too little about a program. These case studies serve to make the unfamiliar familiar, and give readers a common language about the topic.
Open in a separate window In Table IIIthe number of studies located, and final numbers selected for review have been reported. In the health category, there were 12 case studies of health conditions, health services, and health policy issues, all published in Qualitative Health Research.
Seven case studies were categorized as social sciences and anthropology research, which combined case study with biography and ethnography methodologies.
All three journals published case studies on methods research to illustrate a data collection or analysis technique, methodological procedure, or related issue. Findings The methodological descriptions of 34 case studies were critically reviewed using the adapted criteria.
All articles reviewed contained a description of study methods; however, the length, amount of detail, and position of the description in the article varied.
Few studies provided an accurate description and rationale for using a qualitative case study approach. In the 34 case studies reviewed, three described a theoretical framework informed by Staketwo by Yinand three provided a mixed framework informed by various authors, which might have included both Yin and Stake.
Few studies described their case study design, or included a rationale that explained why they excluded or added further procedures, and whether this was to enhance the study design, or to better suit the research question.
In 26 of the studies no reference was provided to principal case study authors. From reviewing the description of methods, few authors provided a description or justification of case study methodology that demonstrated how their study was informed by the methodological literature that exists on this approach.
The methodological descriptions of each study were reviewed using the adapted criteria, and the following issues were identified: An outline of how the issues were developed from the critical review is provided, followed by a discussion of how these relate to the current methodological literature.
Case study methodology or method A third of the case studies reviewed appeared to use a case report method, not case study methodology as described by principal authors Creswell, b ; Merriam, ; Stake, ; Yin, Case studies were identified as a case report because of missing methodological detail and by review of the study aims and purpose.
These reports presented data for small samples of no more than three people, places or phenomenon. Case reports were not a case of something, instead were a case demonstration or an example presented in a report.
These reports presented outcomes, and reported on how the case could be generalized. Descriptions focussed on the phenomena, rather than the case itself, and did not appear to study the case in its entirety.
This does not suggest that case study methodology cannot be multimethod, however, methodology should be consistent in design, be clearly described Meyer, ; Stake,and maintain focus on the case Creswell, b.
To demonstrate how case reports were identified, three examples are provided. The findings were a historical case report, which resulted from an ethnographic study of vegetarianism.
This case study reported how digital storytelling can be used with indigenous communities as a participatory method to illuminate the benefits of this method for other studies.
Case study of something particular and case selection Case selection is a precursor to case analysis, which needs to be presented as a convincing argument Merriam, different research methods, including the case study method, can be determined by the kind of research question that a study is trying to address (e.g., Shavelson & Towne, , pp.
99–). In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as .
Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions.
The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in . We felt case study research was important to define because it is a common approach in healthcare research. In part, this may be because the units of interest in healthcare research (patient, practice, health system) can often be easily bounded and seen by the researcher as a case.
A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context. For instance, Freud developed case studies of several individuals as the basis for the theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget did case studies of children to study .
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
"Qualitative Case Study Guidelines".