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The Bruce Nuclear Generating Stationthe largest nuclear power facility in the world  The economics of new nuclear power stations is a controversial subject, and multibillion-dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source.
Nuclear power stations typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs.
Therefore, comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear stations.
Cost estimates take into account station decommissioning and nuclear waste storage or recycling costs in the United States due to the Price Anderson Act. However, up to now, there has not been any actual bulk recycling of waste from a NPP, and on-site temporary storage is still being used at almost all plant sites due to waste repository construction problems.
Only Finland has stable repository plans, therefore from a worldwide perspective, long-term waste storage costs are uncertain. Some nuclear reactors in operation release clouds of non-radioactive water vapor to get rid of waste heat.
Doel Nuclear Power Station On the other hand, construction, or capital cost aside, measures to mitigate global warming such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions tradingincreasingly favor the economics of nuclear power. In Eastern Europe, a number of long-established projects are struggling to find finance, notably Belene in Bulgaria and the additional reactors at Cernavoda in Romania, and some potential backers have pulled out.
To date all operating nuclear power stations were developed by state-owned or regulated utility monopolies  where many of the risks associated with construction costs, operating performance, fuel price, and other factors were borne by consumers rather than suppliers.
Many countries have now liberalized the electricity market where these risks and the risk of cheaper competitors emerging before capital costs are recovered, are borne by station suppliers and operators rather than consumers, which leads to a significantly different evaluation of the economics of new nuclear power stations.
Safety and accidents[ edit ] Main articles: Such accidents are unavoidable and cannot be designed around. This leads to on average one serious accident happening every eight years worldwide. Nuclear power plants cannot explode like a nuclear bomb because the fuel for uranium reactors is not enriched enough, and nuclear weapons require precision explosives to force fuel into a small enough volume to go supercritical.
Most reactors require continuous temperature control to prevent a core meltdownwhich has occurred on a few occasions through accident or natural disaster, releasing radiation and making the surrounding area uninhabitable.
Plants must be defended against theft of nuclear material for example to make a dirty bomb and attack by enemy military which has occurred  planes or missiles, or planes hijacked by terrorists. Nuclear power debate The abandoned city of Prypiat, Ukrainefollowing the Chernobyl disaster.
The Chernobyl nuclear power station is in the background. The nuclear power debate is about the controversy     which has surrounded the deployment and use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity from nuclear fuel for civilian purposes.
The debate about nuclear power peaked during the s and s, when it "reached an intensity unprecedented in the history of technology controversies", in some countries. Proponents also believe that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries.
They emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants.
Threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium miningprocessing and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the unsolved problem of radioactive nuclear waste.
The hot water modifies the environmental conditions for marine flora and fauna. They also contend that reactors themselves are enormously complex machines where many things can and do go wrong, and there have been many serious nuclear accidents.
Actual construction costs often exceed estimates, and spent fuel management costs do not have a clear time limit.
Nuclear reprocessing Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. Originally reprocessing was used solely to extract plutonium for producing nuclear weapons.
With the commercialization of nuclear powerthe reprocessed plutonium was recycled back into MOX nuclear fuel for thermal reactors.
Finally, the breeder reactor can employ not only the recycled plutonium and uranium in spent fuel, but all the actinidesclosing the nuclear fuel cycle and potentially multiplying the energy extracted from natural uranium by more than 60 times.
Reprocessing has been politically controversial because of the potential to contribute to nuclear proliferationthe potential vulnerability to nuclear terrorismthe political challenges of repository siting a problem that applies equally to direct disposal of spent fueland because of its high cost compared to the once-through fuel cycle.
Under the Energy policy of the United Kingdom through its Nuclear Installations Actliability is governed for nuclear damage for which a UK nuclear licensee is responsible. Between ten and thirty years afterwards, the Government meets this obligation.
Nuclear decommissioning Nuclear decommissioning is the dismantling of a nuclear power station and decontamination of the site to a state no longer requiring protection from radiation for the general public.
The main difference from the dismantling of other power stations is the presence of radioactive material that requires special precautions to remove and safely relocate to a waste repository. It includes all clean-up of radioactivity and progressive demolition of the station.
Once a facility is decommissioned, there should no longer be any danger of a radioactive accident or to any persons visiting it.
After a facility has been completely decommissioned it is released from regulatory control, and the licensee of the station no longer has responsibility for its nuclear safety.International Academy of Management and Economics Noli Santos International Tower, Metropolitan Ave.
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