Although at first they had a very difficult time surviving on land, they gradually became acclimated to their new terrestrial habitat. This was only after they had formed adaptations to overcome a slew of problems that plagued them on land. For example, they had needed an aquatic environment for both reproduction and to support the plant body, and they had to adapt to living without their aquatic surroundings.
There is overwhelming evidence that the ancestors of modern land plants evolved in aquatic environments, where they existed and diversified over millions of years.
From one group of these organisms — probably ancestors of modern species of protists known as green algae — emerged a new branch on the tree of life.
From this branch arose four groups of land plants, including the mosses, the ferns, the conifers, and the flowering plants. These groups are believed to represent a sequence that reflects the evolutionary history of land plants. What adaptations occurred with the transition from water to land?
Moss, a primitive land plant Body support As plants evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments, several obstacles stood in the way. One obstacle was structural support. In water, organisms are buoyant and the effects of gravity are minimal. Even among larger forms, like kelps, structures with gas-filled vesicles allow them to float.
On land, however, if a plant is to grow tall, it needs to withstand the forces of gravity.
What adaptations allowed plants to get tall? Rigid cell walls developed to provide support, as did different types of supportive tissues — the woody tissue layers of trees are good examples.
This type of support is found in the ferns, but is fairly primitive. There are thus few ferns that grow more than a meter above the ground.
It is in the conifers and flowering plants that we observe the most well-developed adaptations of this nature. Transport of materials A second challenge to life on land was the distribution of water and other materials to each cell.
In aquatic forms, transport occurs directly from the surrounding environment. On land, however, plants must get water and other materials from the soil. What adaptations allowed taller plants to obtain these materials? A differentiation of plant parts also evolved: Fertilization A third challenge during the transition to land involved bringing sex cells together.
In water, sperm are able to swim directly to eggs. On land, this can only happen in moist environments—and this is exactly what happens with mosses and ferns.
Other land plants, however, exist away from such environments. What adaptations allow fertilization to occur in these plants? The answer is found in alternation of generations described above. The sporophyte generation—the adult generation that produces spores— produces microscopic gametophytes within special structures that provide water and nutrients.
The male gametophytes, which form non-swimming sperm, develop within pollen grains. The female gametophytes, which produce eggs, develop on scales in conifers or within ovaries in flowering plants. Pollen is adapted to use wind to transport sperm to eggs, which replaces the need for water. Development and dispersal of the embryo A fourth challenge for land plants resulted in the evolution of seeds.
In aquatic environments, a fertilized egg can develop into an embryo that is never in danger of dehydrating. In addition, the embryo can receive water and nutrients directly from the surrounding environment. The opposite is true on land. On land, an embryo can dry out rapidly and exists in an environment where water and nutrients exist in the ground.
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Seeds represent adaptations that conquer these challenges. Seeds enclose an embryo in a moist environment. And, tissues within seeds provide food for a developing embryo.Learn plant adaptations land with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of plant adaptations land flashcards on Quizlet.
There are a number of adaptations that allow plants to survive on land. A prominent adaptation is the vascular system. This consists of xylem and phloem tissues that transport nutrients and water to various parts of the plants. This extensive transport system allows the plants to gain height and become large in size.
*Identify characteristics common to all plants. *Compare and contrast vascular and nonvascular. *Explain which plant adaptations make it possible for plants to survive on land. And because plants have to make their own food, many Antarctic plants increase the rate of photosynthesis to make food faster and at lower temperatures.
Behavioral adaptations are another way that organisms adapt to the extreme environment of Antarctica. Adaptations plants had to make to be Many years ago, plants made the drastic move from water onto land. Although at first they had a very difficult time surviving on land, they gradually became acclimated to their new terrestrial habitat.
Adaptations plants had to make to be able to survive on land Essay Sample. Many years ago, plants made the drastic move from water onto land. Although at first they had a very difficult time surviving on land, they gradually became acclimated to their new terrestrial habitat.